Category Archives: 28C3

Encrypted Traffic Mining (TM) – e.g. Leaks in Skype

Stefan Burschka presented a nice attack against Skype on 28C3. The attack allows you to detect a sentence or a sequence of words in an encrypted Skype call, without having to break the cryptography used in Skype. Skype is a famous internet telephony application, that offers free voice calls. To save bandwidth, Skype uses an advanced audio codec. The used bandwidth and the size of the packets send by Skype depends heavily on the audio, that is encoded. The packet length is no hidden by the encryption of Skype and visible to an eavesdropper.  Just using these information, Burschka could distinguish between difference sentences in an encrypted Skype call.

Two methods were used to improve these results:

  • Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) is an algorithm used by many speech recognition systems, to compare an audio sample with a set of reference samples of slightly different length.
  • A Kalman Filter, which is a method to remove noise from measurements. I think here, noise is a slight variation of the packet lengths.

That the amount of communication between two parties and the actual timing of packets can leak information about the content of an encrypted communication was known for a long time, and has been successfully used for an attack against the TOR onion router network. However, this is the first time, that I have seen this method applied against Skype. The methods here are so generic, that they might be applied as well against other VoIP systems like SIP, if they are encrypted or communicate over a VPN.

The full paper is available at and the slides can be downloaded from

802.11 Packets in Packets – Standard-Compliant PHY Exploits

Travis Goodspeed presented a sneaky attack against WiFi networks at 28C3. The idea is simple: Assume we want to inject packets remotely into a wireless network. Assume that there is a user in the network visiting a malicious webpage. How can we trick him into injecting a packet of our choice into his network?

We can use a nice property of many radio protocols: They split their transmission in packets. A static radio preamble and/or sync-field is send at the beginning of a packet, followed by a packet header, payload, and a checksum. (Some protocols also use forward error correction.) The radio preamble is used by a receiver to detect the start of a transmission. A receiver will scan the frequency for a valid radio preamble, and if one was found, receive a packet. The end of a packet can either be determined by a length-field in the header, or some protocols use fixed length packets, so that the length of a packet is known in advance. After the packet has been received, a checksum in the packet can be used to find out, if the transmission has been damaged by radio interference.

So what would happen, if we embed the packet we want to inject, into a HTML-Page or another file, that is transferred to the client. When that file is downloaded, a perfectly valid packet, containing our packet as payout will be transmitted. As long as this packet is received correctly by the client, everything works as normal. However, if the radio preamble of this packet is damaged during the transmission, the receiver will continue to scan for a radio preamble, and start receiving our embedded packet. Of course, the odds that this specific radio preamble is damaged during the transmission might be quiet low, we can easily repeat that packet in the transmission, until it is decoded by a client. This is not a theoretical thing, from time to time, radio preambles of packets are really received incorrectly in practice. As a result, we manage to inject a packet into a WiFi network, that was never send. The packet send is also perfectly standard compliant(, if it is received without any error).

There are some practical problems when implementing this, like switching the transmission speed during a packet or different modulations. However, Travis managed to implement his attack against 802.11b WiFi networks.

The full paper is available at: